Renewed interest in Solar Energy has manifested itself in a variety of ways- research and development projects sponsored by different Ministries in India and other countries and private agencies, seminars, symposia and workshops at national and international level, efforts by industry to implement solar technology in its programme, etc. this interest is the outcome of the recognition of the potential of solar energy as a viable supplementary source of energy, and it should be sustained by a systematic and concerted effort.
It is exciting and challenging to realize that we can all share in this inexhaustible energy source. The economic feasibility of Solar Energy utilization depends upon efficient collection, conversion and storage. The system can be efficiently designed only when one knows the fundamental and the very nature of Solar Energy. The most important goal in Solar Energy applications is the ability to calculate the output from a proposed design application and thereby establish the value of the energy delivered and a fair price for the system. To this end the necessary background and information are carefully documented and presented in various chapters.
Several books are available dealing with Solar Energy utilization. Most of these books have been written without any specific aim in response to the great popular appeal that Solar Energy will be used by people all over the world. These books serve only a limited purpose and are thus restricted in scope. Therefore, there is a need of authoritative presentation.
In this Annual book, we are fortunate to have a number of authoritative reviews on select invited topics/ subjects of interest in the field of Solar Energy and of timely in this field as well as reports on the original work. Ever since Solar Energy Centre (SEC) and now National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE) started its own training, research, outdoor and indoor testing of both solar thermal and photovoltaic modules and systems in India, serious attempts were made both at MNRE and SEC level to understand and formulate the role of Solar Energy in the context of overall energy scenario in the country. Large number of training programs and other educational activities both for professionals from India and developing countries including South Asian Association for Regional Co- operation (SAARC) and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) were organized at SEC. Moreover, there were opportunities to interact with senior government officials from concerned ministries like Ministry of Human Resource Development,
Ministry of Power, Ministry of Coal, Ministry of Petroleum, Ministry of Environment and Forest and other scientific laboratories like CSIR, ICAR, ICMR and other educational institutions and universities like IITs, IIMs, Delhi University, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Jamia Milia Islamia and others. During the interactions and meetings with the officials both at the ministries and NISE, it became apparent to have a latest of the art literature on annual basis, a review book, giving a balanced and up-to-date attitude in the field of Solar Energy dealing both fundamentals and applications The aim of this Annual is to highlight the importance of the requirement which may serve the interest of professional workers in the field as well as those working in industries and government organizations and those of serious scientists and students at university level both at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. The other Annual volumes shortly to be published by National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE) are as follows:
(1) Solar Photovoltaics basics, design and applications
(2) Solar thermal energy fundamentals and applications
(3) Renewable Energy Engineering Education Training and Awareness
We welcome future contributions from prospective authors who share these intentions.
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Dr. Ramdhan Vashistha is a renowned scientist having more than 36 years of experience in the field of Meteorological Instrumentation and has worked as Deputy Director General of Meteorology (Instrumentation) at Indian Meteorological Department and was National Consultant in GIZ under Indo-German Energy Programme under which 119 AWS with meteorological and solar radiation measurement stations were installed in different parts of India by National Institute of Wind Energy. He was backbone of Surface Weather Network under Modernization of IMD which includes 550 AWS, 1350 ARG and Modernization of Airports project in India.
Dr. Indradip Mitra is presently working as a Senior Technical Advisor of the German International Cooperation (GIZ GmbH) in India. He is the Team Leader of the Indo- German collaborative Project 'SolMap' which is funded by German Federal Ministry of Environment (BMUB). He has been working in the domain of renewable energy and energy efficiency since last 19 years in India and Europe. He has served the position of a Research Scientist in The Cyprus Institute, Cyprus; a Visiting Scientist in the Fraunhofer Institute for Wind and Energy Systems (IWES), Germany and a Research Associate in The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India. He obtained his Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from University of Kassel, Germany; his Masters in Renewable Energy from University of Oldenburg, Germany and his Post Graduate Diploma in Energy Management from Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management (IISWBM), India.
Dr. S. GOMATHINAYAGAM, a graduate (Civil Engineering) of Regional Engineering College Trichirapalli of the Madras University, obtained his post-graduate and doctoral degrees from the IIT-M. After serving as a Project Associate at IIT-M for about one and a half years, and with a brief stint at Best & Crompton design office, he joined Structural Engineering Research Centre, Madras in 1983 as Scientist and has risen to the position of Deputy Director and Project Leade of Field Experiments in Wind Engineering. After serving 25 years in solving various multidisciplinary industrial, consultancy and software developme problems at Structural Engineering Research Centre, Madras he has joined as Executive Director in Centre for Wind Energy Technology, an autonomous research body of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE, GOI) in January 2009. He has published over eighty (80) interdisciplinary technical papers in refereed national / international journals/conferences/ seminars. Now at NIWE (formerly C-WET) as Director General has to do technology management and coordination of research, analysis, design, certification and performance testing. consultancy and human resource development related to Wind Power development in India.
Dr. G. Giridhar, is working as Director / Head in the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment (SRRA) Project at National Institute of Wind Energy an autonomous R&D Institution under Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. He joined the Ministry as Scientist-B in 1987 and worked in one of its Regional Offices established at Chennai. In 2006, posted in National Institute of Solar Energy, Gurgaon, in charge of Solar Thermal Division. In 2009, again posted at MNRE New Delhi and held positions in Biogas for Power Generation Programs, Solar Cities and Solar Steam Generation divisions in different periods before posting in NIWE in 2011 as the Head of the SRRA project. Under the project, established a network of 111 Solar Radiation Resource Assessment (SRRA) stations and 4 Advanced Measurement Stations (AMS) in potential areas of the country. He completed Ph. D., from IIT, Delhi in the year 1987 on, "Utilization of Biomass".
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Dr. Shireesh B. Kedare is presently a Professor at Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay. Dr. Kedare is B. Tech. in Mechanical Engineering (1985) from IIT Bombay and has Ph.D. (1992) from IIT Bombay in "Reciprocating Wind Machine". From 2001 to 2013, Dr. Kedare worked as an adjunct faculty in Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay and as Director (R &
D), Clique Developments Ltd., Mumbai. He has developed and tested different versions of Arun, 10 sq.m at Kolhapur (1998) and 28 sq m at Pune (2001-2004). He has worked on integration of solar concentrators for a variety of industrial processes as well as commercial applications using steam, pressurized water or thermic fluid as media as well as for steam augmentation in thermal power plants. Dr. Kodare was part of the team working at IIT-Bombay on development of a megawatt scale solar thermal power plant having short-time thermal storage with his focus on solar collector field design, technology selection and implementation. development of PFD and PID along with control philosophy. He has published more than 75 research papers, 5 chapters and articles in books, 7 technical reports, has supervised 7 Ph.D. students and many M.Tech. and M.Sc. students, and has been granted one patent (applied for 3).
Anand Upadhyay is an Associate Fellow with The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI, New Delhi). He holds a B.E. in Chemical Engineering (University of Mumbai, 2007) and an M.Tech in Energy Systems Engineering (IIT Bombay, 2009). He has six years of diverse project experience in solar and other renewable energy technologies, including project management, modeling and simulation of energy systems, system design, and installation. Anand has specific interests in solar thermal technologies, energy policy and rural energy access.
Nishith B. Desai is a Research Scholar at Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay. He is also the lead developer in the Solar Thermal Simulator, which is part of the project "Development of a Megawatt-scale Solar Thermal Power Testing, Simulation and Research Facility". His research involves modeling and optimization of solar thermal power plants and waste heat recovery through organic Rankine cycle. Nishith did his post graduation studies in Energy Systems Engineering from IIT Bombay (2008). He has over eleven years of professional experience in academia and as an active researcher. He has published 5 research papers in international journals.
Dr. Subhash Chandra Mullick is presently Emeritus Professor at the Centre for Energy Studies of Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. He received his B.Tech, M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Mechanical Engineering papers from IIT Madras. His activities include Solar Thermal Engineering, Energy Conservation and Applied Heat Transfer. He has published a large number of p in esteemed international journals. He has served in the faculty of IIT, Delhi for almost 40 years, including a three year term as Head, Centre for Energy Studies. Prof. Mullick has taught a number of undergraduate and postgraduate courses at IIT Delhi which include Engineering Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, Solar Thermal Processes, Energy Conservation, Power Plant Engineering, Cogeneration and Energy Efficiency. He has guided many Ph.D., M.Tech. and B.Tech. projects.
Dr. Tara Chandra Kandpal is a Professor of solar energy at the Centre for Energy Studies of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi. He has undertaken extensive research work in the areas of Optics of Solar Concentrators, Testing of Solar Thermal Devices, Techno-economics of Renewable Energy Systems, Rural Energy Planning and Renewable Energy Education and Training. Professor Kandpal has guided over fifteen doctoral and over forty master's level theses and has taught a variety of undergraduate and postgraduate level courses in the field of Renewable Energy and Environment. He has co- authored over hundred research papers published in international journals and has co-authored seven books. He is a recipient of the UNESCO Young Scientist Award for the year 1989 in the area of Energy Technology. Professor Kandpal was the editor of SESI Journal (The Journal of Solar Energy Society of India) during 1995-2001. Professor Kandpal was the co-coordinator of the United National University Tokyo sponsored training programme on Renewable Energy Systems at IIT Delhi during 1987-1997 and Institutional coordinator of the programme during 1997-2000.
Chandan Sharma has been an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Government Engineering College Ajmer, Rajasthan since 1999 and is currently pursuing Ph.D. in the area of Solar Thermal Power Generation at the Centre for Energy Studies of Indian Institute of Technology Delhi.
Ashish Kumar Sharma is pursuing his Ph.D. in the area of Industrial Process Heating using Solar Concentrators at the Centre for Energy Studies of Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. He has completed his M.Tech. from National Institute of Technology Hamirpur.
Tarun Kumar Aseri has been an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Government Engineering College Ajmer, Rajasthan since 2007. He has recently completed his M.Tech. in Energy Studies from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi.
Brij Mohan Arora received B.Tech. degree in Electronics and Electrical Communication from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur in 1965 and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign in 1968 and 1972 respectively. Since 1972, he was with the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, from where he retired as Professor in the Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science in July 2008. From Dec 2008, he is Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at IIT Bombay. B M Arora has worked in the areas of plasma display panel, semiconductor materials and optoelectronic devices, t semiconductor lasers and infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor quantum structures. Since joining IIT Bombay, he has b involved with the National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), working on several aspects of solar cells, including heterojunction silicon cells, characterization of solar cells, and reliability of solar PV modules, particularly compound
Parag Bhargava graduated with a B. Tech. (Metallurgical Engineering) from IIT Bombay in 1991 and with a Masters (Materials Engineering) and PhD (Materials Science) from University of Alabama in 1994 and 1996 respectively. He carried out post- doctoral research at Rutgers University. In 1998 he joined Materials Science Centre, IIT Kharagpur as an Assistant Professor and in 2005 he moved to Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science department at IIT Bombay where he is currently Professor. He is associated with the Particulate Materials (PM) laboratory, and the National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE) where his group has been working on dye sensitized solar cells and thin films solar cells and ceramics for structural applications. Parag was awarded the Young Engineer of the year award by the INAE in 2002; First Prize, Inter-IIT competition on, "New environments for learning, teaching, research, creation, use and preservation of digital resources", Pan-IIT meet Mumbai (2006); Silver medal for technology based commercializable innovation at Incubiz (Anveshan 05) IIM Ahmedabad (2005); Excellence in teaching award at IIT Bombay in 2008; The Chevening Rolls Royce, Science, Innovation and Leadership (CRISP) fellowship award in 2015.
Anil Kottantharayil is a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at IIT Bombay. He received his Dr.Ing. degree (summa cum laude) from the Universitat der Bundeswehr, Germany, in 2002.From 2001 to 2006, he was with the Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC), Leuven, Belgium, where he worked on FinFETs, metal gate, and high- è integration in logic technologies. His current research interests span both nanoelectronics and photovoltaics. He leads the crystalline silicon solar cell research activities at the National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE) at IIT Bombay. The team has developed the baseline large area (5" x 5") cell process technology, which is being used as a platform for developing low cost processes and materials.
Sudhanshu Mallick graduated with a B. Tech (Met.Eng. and Mat. Sci.) from IIT Bombay in 2000 and with a Masters (ECE) and PhD (MSE) from Purdue University in 2004 and 2005 respectively. From 2005 he worked at Intel Corporation in Chandler, Arizona, USA, where he was part of the process integration team responsible for the high volume manufacturing and process improvements in the 65nm logic technology. He joined IIT Bombay in 2009 where he is currently an Assistant Professor in the department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, and is also associated with the National Centre for Photovoltaics Research and Education (NCPRE).
K.L. Narasimhan is currently a Distinguished Visiting Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at IIT Bombay, where he is actively nvolved in the activities of the National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE). Prior to joining IIT, he was a Professor in the
epartment of condensed matter physics at the Tata nstitute of Fundamental Research (TIFR). His search interests encompass semiconducting materials and devices, and e has worked on both amorphous silicon solar cells and organic solar ells. His current interests focus on photovoltaics materials and gineering, including new characterization techniques for solar cells and lar PV modules.
Shaibal K. Sarkar is currently working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay, and is a member of the National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE). Prior to his current appointment, he worked as postdoctoral research fellow at University of Colorado at Boulder (2007-2009) and Materials Research Center at University of Missouri Rolla (2005-2007). He obtained his PhD from Weizmann Institute of
Science in the year 2005, Prof. Sarkar works on development, design w applications of ultra-thin films using Atomic Layer Deposition. His gro works towards the development of solid state sensitized solar cells and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells. His group recently demonstrated high efficiency perovskite solar cells using ALD grown ho conducting material. He has published more than 35 papers in the journal of international repute.
Chetan Singh Solanki is currently Associate Professor in Department of Energy Science and Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (ITB), and Principal Investigator of the National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE). He is an expert crystalline Si technology, Si-nanostructures (including quantum dots), thin film Si solar cells, PV concentrator systems and carbon nanotubes. He received his Ph.D. degree from the specialist silicon laboratory, IMEC (Inter-university Micro-electronics Center, Katholik University, Leuven, Belgium). He won an EMRS (European Material Research Society) young scientist award in 2003 and IIT Bombay Young Investigator Award in 2009. He has authored several books in the area of renewable energy, including Solar Photovoltaics: Fundamentals, Technologies and Applications. He has written several research papers and owns several patents in the area of solar photovoltaics.
Juzer Vasi is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at IIT Bombay. He obtained his B.Tech. from IIT Bombay and Ph.D. from The Johns Hopkins University. He taught at The Johns Hopkins University and IIT Delhi, before joining IIT Bombay in 1981. He has worked in the areas of microelectronics, CMOS devices, and recently, photovoltaics, where his interests include silicon nanocrystals for solar cells and PV module reliability. He was a Principal Investigator of the National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE) from 2010 to 2012, and is currently the India Research Thrust Co-Lead for the Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the US (SERIIUS). He was Editor of IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices from 1996-2003. He is a Fellow of IEEE and a Fellow of INAE
Prof. Hiranmay Saha received his M. Tech degree in Radiophysics and Electronics from University of Calcutta in 1967 and Ph. D degree in Solar Cells and Systems in 1977. He was Professor of Physics for 20 years in the University of Kalyani and 22 years in the Dept of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering. Jadavpur University. Currently he is the Professor-in-charge of 'Centre of Excellence for Green Energy and Sensor Systems, Indian Institute of Engineering Science & Technology, Shibpur. His research interest is in solar cells, PV systems and gas sensors including MEMS. He has published about three hundred papers and holds twelve patents.
Tathagata Sarkar received his B.Tech degree in
Electronics & Communication Engineering in 2004. He has 10 years experience in Renewable energy systems design and implementation in India and abroad. Currently he is pursuing his PhD degree in Indian Institute of Engineering Science & Technology (formerly Bengal Engineering & Science University). Shibpur in Solar Photovoltaic Systems.
Joydip Jana received his B.Tech and M.Tech degree in Electronics & Communication Engineering in 2009 and 2012, respectively. Currently he is pursuing PhD in Indian Institute of Engineering Science & Technology (formerly Bengal Engineering & Science University), Shibpur in Solar Photovoltaic Systems. His areas of interest are grid-connected inverter, microgrid, supercapacitor etc.